Jenn Hoskins

17th May, 2024

Image Source: Natural Science News, 2024

Key Findings

The study from Sakarya University developed a functional hemp drink enriched with GABA using germination and co-fermentation processesGermination for three days and co-fermentation with Lactobacillus casei and Bacillus subtilis significantly increased GABA content in hemp milkThe bioprocessed hemp milk showed improved stability, higher soluble protein content, and increased antioxidant activity compared to untreated hemp milk

The recent study from Sakarya University[1] focuses on developing a functional hemp drink enriched with γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) to enhance its nutritional value and functional properties. GABA is a compound known for its antidepressant, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and neural disease mitigation properties[2]. The study utilizes Solid-State (SSF) co-Fermentation by Lactobacillus casei and Bacillus subtilis alongside germination bioprocesses to achieve this enhancement.
Hemp milk, a plant-based milk alternative, often faces challenges such as product instability and the need for additives. The study proposes bioprocesses as a potential solution to these issues. Specifically, the researchers focused on germination for three days and co-fermentation processes, which resulted in the highest GABA content of 79.84 and 102.45 mg/100 mL, respectively, compared to untreated hemp milk.
The methods employed in this study include germination and SSF co-fermentation. Germination is the process where seeds begin to grow and sprout, which can enhance the nutritional profile of the seeds[3]. In this study, germination of hemp seeds for three days significantly increased the GABA content. SSF co-fermentation involves using specific microorganisms to ferment the substrate, in this case, hemp milk, to produce bioactive compounds like GABA. This method not only increased GABA content but also improved the overall stability and nutritional profile of the hemp milk.
The bioactive milk samples produced through these processes exhibited higher zeta potential and soluble protein content. Zeta potential is a measure of the stability of colloidal dispersions, which in this context means that the hemp milk was more stable and less likely to separate. The increased soluble protein content indicates a higher nutritional value. Additionally, the processes reduced solid particle sedimentation and droplet sizes (D4,3 and D3,2), further contributing to the stability and homogeneity of the milk.
The study also found that the peptide, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of the produced GABA-enriched milks were higher than those of untreated hemp milk. Peptides are short chains of amino acids that can have various health benefits, including antioxidant properties. Phenolic compounds are known for their antioxidant activity, which can help in reducing oxidative stress in the body[3]. The increased antioxidant activity in the GABA-enriched hemp milk suggests that it could provide additional health benefits.
This study ties together previous findings on the benefits of GABA and the nutritional enhancement of plant-based foods through germination and fermentation. For instance, it builds on the understanding that GABA can be produced more safely and eco-friendly through microbiological methods[2], and it also leverages the known benefits of germination in enhancing the nutritional profile of seeds[3].
In conclusion, the SSF and germination processes present a promising alternative for producing stable milk analogs with enhanced health-boosting properties. This research from Sakarya University not only addresses the challenges of product instability and the need for additives in hemp milk but also offers a method to significantly enhance its nutritional and functional properties, making it a valuable addition to the market of plant-based milk alternatives[4].


Main Study

1) γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)-enriched Hemp Milk by Solid-state Co-fermentation and Germination Bioprocesses

Published 16th May, 2024


Related Studies

2) γ-Aminobutyric acid found in fermented foods and beverages: current trends.


3) Nutraceutical potential of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds and sprouts.


4) Milk Analog: Plant based alternatives to conventional milk, production, potential and health concerns.


“}]] Researchers at Sakarya University have developed a more nutritious and stable hemp milk by using germination and co-fermentation processes. Enriched with GABA, known for its health benefits, this new hemp milk shows increased stability, higher protein, and antioxidant content.  Read More